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France: donor anonymity holds firm in court case

18 June 2012
Appeared in BioNews 661

A French court has effectively reaffirmed the country's policy of gamete donor anonymity by rejecting a donor-conceived woman's demand for information on her biological father.

The woman requested that a message be passed on to the man asking whether he would accept to be identified. She was also seeking disclosure of non-identifying information – medical history, reasons for donation, number of children conceived from the sample – in the event of the man's refusal of her request.

But even though the woman was not asking for direct identification, the tribunal in Montreuil, on the outskirts of Paris, still threw out her request on the grounds that information given to clinics by gamete donors is protected as secret under French law.

The woman, a lawyer who has asked to remain anonymous, invoked Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights in her claim. Article 8 protects the right to private and family life and in some readings confers a right to access information essential to personal identity.

The Montreuil tribunal rejected this interpretation. In its analysis, 'gamete donor anonymity, which in fact meets the objective of respect for the life of the legal family of the child [...] does not itself threaten the private life of the person concerned'.

French law permits the lifting of anonymity in cases of medical necessity and the woman had argued that this was relevant in her case. She had been told of her donor-conceived status just over two years ago and had been profoundly troubled by the revelation. Access to information regarding her biological father was necessary for her mental health, she argued, and presented a medical certificate as part of her dossier.

Accordingly, the woman also sought damages of €100,000 from the donation centre and related public bodies. Their refusal to disclose the information she sought had contributed, she claimed, to her 'identity crisis'.

Although it was rejected, the woman's claim is indicative of a growing movement challenging the law on gamete donation in France. In 2010 the French government voted on a proposal by Roselyne Bachelot, a former health minister, in which donors could opt out of anonymity should they wish.

Ministers ultimately rejected the proposal, affirming, said Le Monde, 'the primacy of social over genetic links' in French law.

Arthur Kermalvezen, spokesperson for the association Procréation Médicalement Anonyme, which supported the woman's claim, spoke to Le Monde before the tribunal's decision. He said that French donor-conceived people existed 'in a perverse holding pattern. For years we've been advising parents to tell donor-conceived children how they were conceived. But afterwards, the nagging question of who that person [the donor] is becomes inevitable'.

The woman who brought the claim told the newspaper: 'The system was conceived by people who forgot that donor-conceived children would grow up'.

6 July 2015 - by Rebecca Carr 
The Australian state of Victoria has revealed plans to extend rules removing donor anonymity to allow all donor-conceived people access to identifying information about their sperm or egg donor, irrespective of the donor's consent or when they donated...
29 September 2014 - by James Brooks 
France's top civil court, the Court of Cassation, has ruled that children conceived via assisted reproduction overseas can be adopted by same-sex parents...
12 May 2014 - by Jessica Ware 
A French court has ruled that a woman may not adopt a child her partner conceived using fertility treatment abroad. The decision has sparked outrage from equal rights activists...
10 February 2014 - by James Brooks 
Fonzy doesn't so much apply the formula of sperm-donor comedy 'Starbuck' as drop it like a concrete slab on an entirely different cultural context...
4 March 2013 - by Dr Ruth Shidlo 
Once again, the voices of people and families conceived as a result of gamete donation in Israel are going unheeded...
5 March 2012 - by James Brooks 
The Court of Appeal in Rennes, France, has upheld an earlier decision to accord civil status – similar to nationality – to twins carried by a surrogate mother in India for a French couple...
20 February 2012 - by Julianna Photopoulos 
Lawyers representing British Columbia's government were at the Canadian province's Court of Appeal last Tuesday attempting to overturn an earlier ruling which would effectively end anonymous gamete donation...
18 April 2011 - by Nisha Satkunarajah 
France's highest court has denied French citizenship to 10-year-old twins born to a French couple using a surrogate in the USA, reaffirming the country's ban on surrogacy...
6 December 2010 - by Professor Eric Blyth 
Australia has been a noted pacemaker in the field of assisted reproduction. It was the first nation to report embryo relinquishment for family-building, and a pregnancy and live birth from a previously cryopreserved human embryo. The Australian state of Victoria was among the world's first jurisdictions to remove the rights of gamete and embryo donors to remain anonymous...
29 March 2010 - by Professor Donna Dickenson 
'Certain countries in Europe, France in particular, are trying to resist the ultra-liberal individualist ideology of the reproductive market. It's too bad that some other countries have maintained a conspiracy of silence on that subject.' ...
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