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UK Parliament considers law change on single-parent surrogacy

4 December 2017
Appeared in BioNews 929

A remedial order has been laid before the UK Parliament which, if passed, will give single people the same rights as couples to become the legal parents of their surrogate-born children.

Under UK law, the woman who gives birth to a child is automatically considered the child's legal parent. In cases of surrogacy a parental order is required to transfer the legal parenthood to the intended parents. However, current law only permits couples to apply for parental orders.

'So single parents who had a child through surrogacy have been stuck in this gap where they're living with their child but they’re not formally their legal parent,' family lawyer Natalie Gamble told the Independent.

The law in question (Section 54 of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008) was judged incompatible with human rights legislation by the president of the family division of the UK High Court in the case Re Z in 2016. In that case an intended father was prohibited from obtaining a parental order on the sole ground of his status as a single person as opposed to being part of a couple (see BioNews 852).

However, judges do not have the power to change laws written in Acts of Parliament – so it has been up to Parliament to amend the law to bring it into line with the European Convention of Human Rights. In the meantime, more children have been left in legal limbo as judges were powerless to grant parental orders (see BioNews 926).

Sir James Munby, president of the family division, explained in Re Z the importance of having the correct legal parent(s): 'Section 54 goes to the most fundamental aspects of status and, transcending even status, to the very identity of the child as a human being: who he is and who his parents are… A parental order has an effect extending far beyond the merely legal. It has the most profound personal, emotional, psychological, social and, it may be in some cases, cultural and religious, consequences.'

Once the order is passed by Parliament – expected to be in 2018 – it will come into force within two weeks. It will apply to future applications for parental orders, but there will be a one-off six-month period in which families can apply retroactively if they were unable to do so before. Applications must normally be made in the first six months after birth.

'We’re really glad these children will not be left as legal orphans and will be resolved in the loving families in which they were born,' Gamble said.

10 June 2019 - by Jen Willows 
Recommendations to clarify UK surrogacy law have been announced by the Law Commission of England and Wales and the Scottish Law Commission...
7 January 2019 - by Jen Willows 
A remedial order has come into force that gives single people in the UK the same rights as couples to become the legal parents of their surrogate-born children...
8 May 2018 - by Antony Starza-Allen 
The Law Commission of England and Wales and the Scottish Law Commission, have announced that they will review the law around surrogacy and make recommendations for reform...
26 March 2018 - by Natalie Gamble 
The Government is in the process of changing the law to allow single parents with a child through surrogacy to apply for a parental order...
19 March 2018 - by Dr Kimberley Bryon-Dodd 
Fertility treatment in the UK is more successful and safer than ever before, according to a report from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA)...
13 November 2017 - by Sean Byrne 
A woman has been denied legal parenthood of her surrogate-born child because she is single, despite being the genetic mother...
14 August 2017 - by Julianna Photopoulos 
A number of liberal reforms to the Surrogacy Regulation Bill 2016 have been proposed by India's parliamentary Standing Committee on Health and Family Welfare...
19 December 2016 - by Ryan Ross 
The government has welcomed a House of Lords debate on surrogacy law reform, promising to consider whether the statute needs to be updated...
31 May 2016 - by Adem Muzaffer, Elizabeth Isaacs QC and Natalie Gamble 
The President of the High Court Family Division declared last week that UK surrogacy law was incompatible with the human rights of a single father and his child...
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