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Child brain cancer redefined as 10 different diseases

2 October 2017
Appeared in BioNews 920

Deadly childhood brain tumours are highly diverse and can be divided into 10 different subtypes, according to new research.

High-grade gliomas are highly aggressive cancers and responsible for the greatest number of childhood cancer-related deaths due to a lack of effective therapies. This reclassification could lead to more personalised and successful treatments by taking into account the genetic makeup of the tumours.

Study leader Professor Chris Jones from the Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) in London, said: 'Our study uncovered a wealth of new information about children's brain cancers. We found that tumours that have historically been lumped together under one diagnosis are in fact comprised of many, remarkably different, diseases.'

Scientists from the ICR examined 1067 cases of high-grade gliomas in children and young adults and classified them according to clinical and molecular markers. These included age of onset, appearance and location of the tumours, and the number and type of genetic mutations. They found that these cancers, previously classified together, were in fact highly divergent.

'Treating cancer based only on what we see down the microscope simply isn't good enough any more. We need to start thinking about these as completely different cancers and diagnosing and treating them based on their genetic faults,' said Professor Jones.

One of the most relevant findings from the study was the genetic diversity of these cancers – for instance, some children's tumours were driven by a single genetic mutation, while a small subset had tens of thousands of genetic errors. Promisingly, some mutations were identified for which drug targets have already been developed (to treat adult cancers), and numerous new potential therapeutic targets within each subtype were also discovered.

'It's exciting that several types look like they could be clearly treatable using either existing drugs on the market or other treatments under development,' said Professor Jones.

The study was published in Cancer Cell.

SOURCES & REFERENCES
Child brain cancer treatments can be personalised: study
Pharma Times |  29 September 2017
Child brain tumours reveal 10 cancers
The Australian |  29 September 2017
Integrated Molecular Meta-Analysis of 1,000 Pediatric High-Grade and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma
Cancer Cell |  28 September 2017
Researchers Categorize Incurable Childhood Brain Tumors as Separate Cancer Types
AJMC |  28 September 2017
Study splits incurable childhood brain tumours into 10 new diseases
The Institute of Cancer Research News |  28 September 2017
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