The UK Government should review regulation of direct-to-consumer genetic and genomic tests, according to a report by the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.
The 'Direct-to-consumer genomic testing' report outlined the possible risks posed by the increasing availability and scope of consumer genetic and genomic testing. Such tests have become increasingly popular in recent years – by 2020 at-home testing company 23andMe had sold over 250,000 genetic testing kits in the UK, and as the cost of whole genome sequencing comes down more genomic tests are likely to be marketed. However, there are concerns that medical information gleaned from such tests can be misleading (see BioNews 1020).
'We recommend that the Government should require direct-to-consumer tests to be subject to greater pre-market assessment by an external body' said the report. 'We suggest that any such external assessment should cover the test's clinical performance (the extent to which a test can provide information about diagnosis, treatment, management or prevention of disease that will lead to an improved outcome), as well as its analytical performance (how well a test predicts the presence or absence of a particular gene or genetic change)'.
Further recommendations included the development of technical standards to allow such results to be integrated with NHS data, This could reduce the burden on the NHS from having to re-test individuals following consumer tests, but also allow commercial test results to support research. There are also recommendations around limiting some test types to professional use, and banning tests that would fall outside clinical guidelines such as testing children for late-onset conditions.
The committee also specifically addressed that the Government must improve the UK's data protection framework for genomic testing, including implementing more effective data safeguards, given the risks and opportunities presented by technological developments and growing numbers of direct-to-consumer tests.
'This is timely, and an innovative attempt to regulate a market that has grown primarily for commercial purposes to date,' said Moin Saleem, Professor of Paediatric Renal Medicine at the University of Bristol. 'In the context of the public having growing access to individual genetic information, and therefore deeply personal data, it is absolutely necessary.'
'We welcome this report, and hope that it will stimulate wider public discussion of direct-to-consumer genetic and genomic tests,' said Sarah Norcross, director of the Progress Educational Trust (the charity that publishes BioNews). 'Government would be well advised to pay attention to this area if the UK is to maintain its position as a leader in genomics. Top-tier science and technology require top-tier regulation.'