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Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: The Who, the What, the Why and the How


 

Swedish scientist edits genomes of healthy human embryos

26 September 2016

By Anneesa Amjad

Appeared in BioNews 870

A scientist in Sweden has become the first to edit genes in healthy human embryos.

Dr Fredrik Lanner, a developmental biologist at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, is using the revolutionary genome-editing technique CRISPR/Cas9 in human embryos in order to learn more about early embryogenesis.

CRISPR/Cas9 can be used to remove or replace target genes much more accurately and efficiently than previous genome-editing technologies. Dr Lanner is knocking out genes in order to reveal their function. He states that in the future this knowledge may aid research into possible treatments for infertility and diseases such as Parkinson's.

'[CRISPR/Cas9] actually opens the door to start to look at this for the first time, because we could not do this at all previously in the human embryo. The technology was just not efficient enough to try to look at individual gene function as the embryo develops,' Dr Lanner stated in an interview with NPR.

Dr Lanner has edited at least a dozen embryos, but is still studying his results and refining his techniques. The embryos that undergo genome editing in Dr Lanner's work will not be implanted and will be destroyed after two weeks. This requirement also applies to research involving genome editing in human embryos in the UK; edited embryos must be destroyed 14 days post-fertilisation.

Despite this time constraint, some people are worried that this work is an ethical 'slippery slope'. It is feared that detrimental changes to the human genome may cause novel diseases to arise in future generations. Another concern is a future in which prospective parents may be able to design the characteristics of their children.

Dr Lanner recognises these concerns, saying: 'It's not the technology that should be taken lightly. So I really of course stand against any sort of thought that one should use this to design designer babies or enhance [for] aesthetic purposes and so on.'

Dr Lanner believes that research projects like his should continue in the face of these ethical concerns because of the potential benefits: treatments for disease and infertility.

Last year the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine established a Human Gene-Editing Initiative in response to advances in the field of genome editing. The group has suggested that while fundamental research like Dr Lanner's is acceptable, applying CRISPR/Cas9 in human reproduction requires much more ethical and scientific attention.

UK scientists have also gained approval to perform similar genome-editing research later this year (see BioNews 837), while last year a team of Chinese scientists carried out genome editing in non-viable human embryos (see BioNews 799).

On Wednesday 7 December, the Progress Educational Trust is holding a one-day conference entitled 'Rethinking the Ethics of Embryo Research: Genome Editing, 14 Days and Beyond', where speakers will include the first researcher licensed by the UK regulator to use genome editing in human embryo research.

Click here for full for full details, including the conference agenda and how to book your tickets, and email with any queries.

RELATED ARTICLES FROM THE BIONEWS ARCHIVE

04 September 2017 - by Annabel Slater 
A group of scientists have challenged the landmark study which reported the first successful editing of human embryos for a genetic disease...
07 August 2017 - by Charlotte Spicer 
Scientists have published their study confirming they are the first to correct a disease-causing mutation in human embryos using genome editing...
31 July 2017 - by Charlotte Spicer 
Scientists in the US may have successfully used genome editing in human embryos to correct disease mutations, according to a report by MIT Technology Review...
03 April 2017 - by Jennifer Willows 
The European Patent Office has declared that it intends to grant a broad patent for the use of CRISPR technologies to the University of California, the University of Vienna and Dr Emmanuelle Charpentier of the Max-Planck Institute in Berlin...
13 March 2017 - by Dr Katie Howe 
Chinese scientists have successfully used genome editing to correct mutations in viable human embryos for the first time...

01 August 2016 - by Anneesa Amjad 
A survey has found that a majority of adults in the USA are worried about the potential use of genome-editing technologies to give children a reduced risk of disease...
16 May 2016 - by Anneesa Amjad 
An international body representing stem cell scientists has included human genome editing in its updated guidance on the manipulation of stem cells and their use in therapy...
11 April 2016 - by Ayala Ochert 
A second team in China report that they have created genetically modified human embryos, in an attempt to make them resistant to HIV, using the genome-editing technique CRISPR/Cas9...
01 February 2016 - by Ayala Ochert 
The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has granted the first licence to a UK researcher to edit the genomes of human embryos...
27 April 2015 - by Ayala Ochert 
Chinese scientists report the first-ever genetic modification of human embryos using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technique, confirming rumours that these highly controversial experiments were underway...

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Published by the Progress Educational Trust

CROSSING FRONTIERS

Moving the Boundaries of Human Reproduction

Public Conference
London
8 December 2017

Speakers include

Professor Azim Surani

Professor Robin Lovell-Badge

Sally Cheshire

Professor Guido Pennings

Katherine Littler

Professor Richard Anderson

Dr Sue Avery

Dr Elizabeth Garner

Professor Allan Pacey

Dr Anna Smajdor

Dr Andy Greenfield

Philippa Taylor

Dr César Palacios-González

Fiona Fox

Sarah Norcross

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