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Nucleotides are the building blocks that make up DNA and RNA molecules. A single nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base (adenosine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine in DNA), a phosphate group, and a sugar molecule.

Articles using this Glossary Item


CRISPR genome editing may cause unintended mutations

05 June 2017 - by Charlotte Spicer

CRISPR may introduce hundreds of unwanted mutations into the genome, a small study finds... [Read More]

Identity, disability and the genome

11 April 2016 - by Dr Felicity Boardman

My research on families living with the genetic disorder Spinal Muscular Atrophy calls into question some of the assumptions underlying the belief that genetic disease is, inherently and by its very definition, a trait to be avoided... [Read More]

CRISPR-like immune system found in giant virus

07 March 2016 - by Kirsty Oswald

Researchers have found that mimiviruses, a class of giant viruses, have an immune system reminiscent of the CRISPR system used by bacteria to evade infection... [Read More]

Radio Review: Editing Life

22 February 2016 - by Sarah Pritchard

Professor Matthew Cobb investigates some of the implications of the groundbreaking CRISPR genome-editing technology in this BBC Radio 4 documentary... [Read More]

Combined genetic tests could aid autism diagnosis

07 September 2015 - by Dr Ashley Cartwright

Scientists have found that two genetic analysis techniques can increase the number of causative mutations found in children with autism spectrum disorder... [Read More]

Obesity findings set precedent for GWAS research

07 September 2015 - by Dr James Heather

Recent findings linking the FTO gene to adipose cell energy use not only revealed a molecular mechanism that contributes to obesity, but they are also an exemplar of how genome-wide association study findings can make the journey to clinical relevance... [Read More]

Human cells have their clock put back

09 February 2015 - by Chris Baldacci

Scientists have developed a technique to lengthen telomeres - the 'caps' on the end of chromosomes that protect DNA - in human cells in the lab, increasing the cells' lifespan... [Read More]

AstraZeneca commits to CRISPR gene-editing collaboration

02 February 2015 - by Claire Downes

AstraZeneca has joined up with academic and industrial research partners to use CRISPR, a new and much-hyped gene-editing technology in their quest for new medicines.... [Read More]

Australian federal court throws out appeal on gene patenting

08 September 2014 - by Matthew Thomas

Gene sequences isolated from the human body are patentable, according to a ruling by the Australian federal court... [Read More]

Event Review: End to End - Telomeres and Ageing

25 November 2013 - by Jamie Rickman

The 2013 Schrödinger Lecture at Imperial College London was delivered by Dr Elizabeth Blackburn, an Australian-American biologist based in California... [Read More]

'Father of genomics' Fred Sanger dies aged 95

25 November 2013 - by Dr James Heather

Fred Sanger, renowned biochemist, has died aged 95. Having pioneered seminal techniques for the understanding of both proteins and DNA, Dr Sanger is widely hailed as one of the most influential scientists of recent years... [Read More]

Gene defect 'switched off' in human tissue

01 July 2013 - by Simon Hazelwood-Smith

Scientists have for the first time been able to switch on and off the effects of a genetic disease, myotonic dystrophy, in human muscle tissue... [Read More]

The sun still hasn't set on gene patents

01 July 2013 - by Dr Michael Hopkins and Dr Stuart Hogarth

Last week saw the conclusion of the long-running gene patent lawsuit known as AMP v. Myriad Genetics. At stake was the patentability of isolated DNA sequences... [Read More]

An historical turning point? The implications of the Myriad decision on the patentability of human genes

24 June 2013 - by Dr Linda Briceno Moraia and Dr Jane Kaye

The US Supreme Court decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics will have far-reaching implications, not just by lowering the costs of genetic tests, but also for the development of innovations in genetics and genomics and in other emerging fields such as stem cell research and synthetic biology.... [Read More]

Patentability of isolated DNA in the Australian context: Cancer Voices Australia vs Myriad Genetics Inc

18 March 2013 - by Naomi Hawkins

Patents on human genes continue to cause controversy in the academic and popular press. A recent decision in Australia has reaffirmed the patentability of isolated human DNA in that jurisdiction... [Read More]

Event Review: Masterpieces of Epigenetics - The Missing Link between Nature and Nurture

14 January 2013 - by James Lush

'Beautiful science' was how Dr Nessa Carey described epigenetics at the Biochemical Society Annual Symposium Public Lecture, held at the University of Leeds... [Read More]

Gene variant leads to six-fold increase in risk for certain brain tumours

10 September 2012 - by Matthew Young

A single-letter change in one gene may considerably increase a person's risk of developing particular forms of brain cancer, say researchers... [Read More]

Rare genetic variants unexpectedly common in humans

21 May 2012 - by Dr Linda Wijlaars

Rare genetic variants - those carried by fewer than five in 1,000 people - are much more common than previously thought, according to two studies published in Science... [Read More]

Event Review: Field of Genes - DNA Testing to Find Future Olympic Champions

28 November 2011 - by Eleanor White

Would you let your 10-year-old child sit out of PE classes if they were not built for sport? Would it inspire you to do better if you found out your genes indicated that you're not likely to succeed at it? Or would it demoralise you to the point that you give up on something you love?... [Read More]

TV Review: Horizon - Miracle Cure? A Decade of the Human Genome

01 November 2010 - by Professor Sandy Raeburn

During the early, uncertain years of the Human Genome Project, Professor Bryan Clarke of the University of Nottingham kept challenging all Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) aficionados to explain how the new biological knowledge obtained would lead to medical advances. Bryan also kept asking - 'whose genome is being sequenced anyway'?... [Read More]


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