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Glossary

X chromosome

One of two sex chromosomes that are the main determinant gender. Human females have two X chromosome, whereas males have an X and Y chromosome.



Articles using this Glossary Item

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Gene therapy halts fatal child brain disease

09 October 2017 - by Charlotte Spicer

A new gene therapy has halted the progression of a fatal degenerative brain disease in a small study of affected boys... [Read More]

Sperm from stem cells could help some types of male infertility

21 August 2017 - by Shaoni Bhattacharya

Cells from genetically infertile male mice have been turned into sperm, and used to produce healthy pups... [Read More]

Baldness linked to over 280 genes

20 February 2017 - by Emma Laycock

A new study has found over 280 genes associated with male-pattern baldness... [Read More]

X chromosome may offer females protection against cancer

28 November 2016 - by Anna Leida

Having two copies of the X chromosome may help explain why females get cancer less often than males, according to new research... [Read More]

Gene mutation may hold key to muscular dystrophy treatment

16 November 2015 - by Jenny Sharpe

Researchers have discovered a gene linked to Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) after a dog bred to model the disease was found to have a protective mutation against it... [Read More]

Prenatal test detects cancer in mothers

20 July 2015 - by Ceri Durham

Abnormal results from a non-invasive prenatal test for fetal chromosome abnormality may indicate the presence of previously undetected cancers in some mothers.... [Read More]

3D map of human genome shows DNA 'loops'

15 December 2014 - by Simon Hazelwood-Smith

A study into the 3D structure of the human genome has revealed the locations of DNA 'loops' at unprecedented resolution... [Read More]

Revamped gene therapy for 'bubble boy' immune condition does well in trial

13 October 2014 - by Dr James Heather

Gene therapy to treat children with 'bubble boy syndrome' seems to be both safe and effective, a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine has found... [Read More]

Homosexuality is inherited, says psychology study

17 February 2014 - by Chris Hardy

Genetics plays a role in male sexual orientation but social and environmental factors are also involved, research suggests... [Read More]

Autoimmune diseases may stem from Neanderthal genes

03 February 2014 - by Dr Anna Cauldwell

Genes linked with type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease and even smoking addiction were acquired through interbreeding with Neanderthals, a study published in Nature suggests... [Read More]

Gene therapy looking good for inherited blindness

16 January 2014 - by Siobhan Chan

Gene therapy for an eye condition called choroideremia is safe and has improved the vision of six patients, says a study in the Lancet... [Read More]

Male chromosome not dying out, say researchers

13 January 2014 - by Matthew Thomas

The human Y chromosome may have some use, after all. Experts previously thought that the chromosome containing 'male' genes was shrinking to the point of extinction... [Read More]

'Female chromosome' might make a man a man

29 July 2013 - by Clara Salice

The 'female' X chromosome has been shown to contain several genes that may be involved in sperm production... [Read More]

Down's syndrome chromosome 'can be silenced'

22 July 2013 - by Dr Lucy Freem

A method that 'switches off' entire chromosomes has been used in isolated cells to target the genetic defect behind Down's syndrome... [Read More]

Men might escape extinction according to monkey Y chromosome study

27 February 2012 - by Ruth Saunders

Men may not be on the brink of extinction after all, according to a study on the evolution of the human Y chromosome. Previous research has suggested that the Y sex chromosome, carried only by men, is decaying genetically at such a rate that men would become extinct in five million years' time... [Read More]

TV Review: Me, My Sex and I

17 October 2011 - by Daniel Malynn

'Me, My Sex and I' is a documentary about people who are born neither entirely male nor female. I must state at the outset that this programme is about the sex of the individual, and should not be confused with gender, which is how people identify themselves (something that many other TV reviews have got wrong in describing this programme). As the show makes clear, sex is not an 'either or' for many people; the real buzz word here is 'ambiguous'.... [Read More]

'Man flu' - do women just have stronger immune systems?

03 October 2011 - by George Frodsham

Genetic differences between men and women could mean that women are better at resisting certain infections and diseases than men, a new study suggests. The second X chromosome in women gives them an immunological advantage over men, possibly giving credence to man's perceived susceptibility to 'man-flu'.... [Read More]

Human history is written in everyone's genome

18 July 2011 - by Mehmet Fidanboylu

Two scientists claim to have pushed the boundaries of what can be learned about the ancestral history of the human race from one person's genome. Dr Richard Durbin and Dr Heng Li from the UK's Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge used information from the genomes of only seven individuals... [Read More]

Cord blood used to treat infant with SCID

15 November 2010 - by Chris Chatterton

Doctors from Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) have used stem cells from donated cord blood to treat a child with a rare genetic disorder.... [Read More]

Study questions screening for Fragile X Syndrome

02 August 2010 - by Rosemary Paxman and Dr Vivienne Raper

Genetic counselling for women and parents undergoing Fragile X syndrome (FXS) screening needs improvement, according to a recent review. The review also called for more studies into the benefits of population-wide screening for FXS... [Read More]

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Philippa Taylor

Fiona Fox

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