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Chemical units that form part of DNA and RNA. DNA contains the bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). In RNA, the thymine is replaced by uracil (U).

Articles using this Glossary Item


Largest catalogue of human genomic variation published

05 October 2015 - by Dr Rosie Morley

An international team of scientists from the 1000 Genomes Project Consortium has created the world's largest catalogue of genomic differences among humans... [Read More]

Obesity findings set precedent for GWAS research

07 September 2015 - by Dr James Heather

Recent findings linking the FTO gene to adipose cell energy use not only revealed a molecular mechanism that contributes to obesity, but they are also an exemplar of how genome-wide association study findings can make the journey to clinical relevance... [Read More]

But what does my genetic test result mean?

22 June 2015 - by Professor Anneke Lucassen and Dr Emma Baple

The gap between discovering genomic contributions to diseases and testing an individual’s genome for personal, actionable, information about health is wider than the current discourse on genomics might suggest... [Read More]

Farewell from me and welcome to Fiona Fox

16 June 2014 - by Professor Marcus Pembrey

When the Progress Educational Trust - the UK charity that publishes BioNews - emerged from the Progress Campaign for Research into Human Reproduction in 1992, I had no idea that I would end up chairing the Trustees for 20 of the last 22 years!... [Read More]

Scientists engineer organism with expanded genetic alphabet

12 May 2014 - by Siobhan Chan

Bacteria with two extra synthetic DNA bases in their genome have been created in the lab for the first time... [Read More]

'Father of genomics' Fred Sanger dies aged 95

25 November 2013 - by Dr James Heather

Fred Sanger, renowned biochemist, has died aged 95. Having pioneered seminal techniques for the understanding of both proteins and DNA, Dr Sanger is widely hailed as one of the most influential scientists of recent years... [Read More]

Scents and sense ability: genes may influence perception of smell

05 August 2013 - by Matthew Thomas

Whether a smell strikes you as fragrant or fetid – or if you even notice it at all – may be influenced by your genes, according to a pair of studies... [Read More]

Crick Cambridge college commemoration

29 April 2013 - by Purvi Shah

A memorial to Francis Crick has been unveiled at his former college at the University of Cambridge to mark the 60th anniversary of the publication of the structure of DNA... [Read More]

DNA turned into digital data storage

28 January 2013 - by Daryl Ramai

Digital information can be reliably stored in DNA, say scientists... [Read More]

Quadruple DNA helix found in human cells

28 January 2013 - by Dr Zara Mahmoud

Scientists have for the first time shown the existence of a new structural form of DNA, called G-quadruplex DNA, in human cells.... [Read More]

Twenty-five genetic variants for autism discovered

21 January 2013 - by Dr Victoria Burchell

Rare genetic variants may have a significant impact on a person's risk of developing autism, research suggests... [Read More]

Gene variant leads to six-fold increase in risk for certain brain tumours

10 September 2012 - by Matthew Young

A single-letter change in one gene may considerably increase a person's risk of developing particular forms of brain cancer, say researchers... [Read More]

Book written in genetic code opens new possibilities for data storage

20 August 2012 - by Alison Cranage

An entire book, comprising 53,426 words, 11 images and a computer program, has been encoded into DNA. The data was stored and accurately read back by scientists at the Harvard University in the USA... [Read More]

Event Review: 1000 Genomes Project Community Meeting

30 July 2012 - by Dr Sarah Spain

The 1000 Genomes Project, an initiative to sequence the genetic code of 2,500 people across five continents, has now successfully sequenced over 1,000 people's genomes... [Read More]

Race to sequence genomes of 100 centenarians gets first entrant and delayed start date

30 July 2012 - by Dr Nadeem Shaikh

A US company has taken up the challenge to sequence 100 genomes in 30 days... [Read More]

Whole fetal genome sequenced for the first time

11 June 2012 - by Dr Daniel Grimes

Researchers have sequenced the entire genome of an 18 and a half-week-old fetus using DNA samples from the blood of its mother and saliva samples from its father. These findings provide a proof of principle that a fetus can be examined for genetic defects using non-invasive technologies... [Read More]

Drawing with DNA: genetic code makes complex shapes

06 June 2012 - by Victoria Kay

Scientists have developed a way of crafting DNA into complex shapes such as letters of the alphabet, symbols and even smiley faces. The nanotechnology may one day be able to create customised DNA structures that can carry therapeutic drugs to specific sites in the human body without triggering an immune response... [Read More]

Event Review: Genomics in Society - Facts, Fictions and Cultures

08 May 2012 - by Sarah Norcross and Sandy Starr

The conference 'Genomics in Society: Facts, Fictions and Cultures' marked the 10th anniversary of the Economic and Social Research Council's Genomics Network, and also the passing of nearly ten years since the completion of the Human Genome Project... [Read More]

Big brains and high IQ linked to small gene change

23 April 2012 - by Helen Brooks

Two genes that influence brain size, and accordingly intelligence and possibly susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease, have been discovered by scientists... [Read More]

Six kinds of synthetic DNA created

23 April 2012 - by Ana Pallesen

Six new kinds of artificial genetic material have been created by scientists. These XNAs, or xeno-nucleic acids, have similar life-building properties to naturally-occurring DNA... [Read More]


Events using this Glossary Item


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Published by the Progress Educational Trust

The Progress Educational Trust's one-day conference 'From Three-Person IVF to Genome Editing: The Science and Ethics of Engineering the Embryo', taking place at University College London's Institute of Child Health on Wednesday 9 December 2015

9 December
Details HERE

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